It was located in northwestern of the now-day Saudi Arabia, and is known for its Ancient North Arabian inscriptions dating to ca. Kindah was a tribal kingdom that was established in the Najd in central Arabia.Its kings exercised an influence over a number of associated tribes more by personal prestige than by coercive settled authority.One of the earliest inscriptions naming Dilmun is that of King Ur-Nanshe of Lagash (c.2300 BC) discovered in a door-socket: "The ships of Dilmun brought him wood as tribute from foreign lands Thamud is the name of an ancient civilization in the Hejaz known from the 1st millennium BC to near the time of Muhammad.Arabia soon became a more politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as the focus shifted to the vast and newly conquered lands.From the 10th century to the early 20th century Mecca and Medina were under the control of a local Arab ruler known as the Sharif of Mecca, but at most times the Sharif owed allegiance to the ruler of one of the major Islamic empires based in Baghdad, Cairo or Istanbul.Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south.It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba.
One reason was to thwart Portuguese attempts to attack the Red Sea (hence the Hejaz) and the Indian Ocean.The state has a total population of 28.7 million, of which 20 million are Saudi nationals and 8 million are foreigners.Following the unification of the Hejaz and Nejd kingdoms, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʻArabīyah as-Suʻūdīyah (a transliteration of المملكة العربية السعودية in Arabic) by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, Abdulaziz Al Saud (Ibn Saud).Most of the remainder of what became Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule.For much of the 10th century the Isma'ili-Shi'ite Qarmatians were the most powerful force in the Persian Gulf.More than 9,000 Thamudic inscriptions were recorded in south-west Saudi Arabia. 100, gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Arabia and Syria, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea.Their loosely controlled trading network, which centered on strings of oases that they controlled, where agriculture was intensively practiced in limited areas, and on the routes that linked them, had no securely defined boundaries in the surrounding desert.Saudi Arabia has since been an absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamic lines.Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca) and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam.Jubail Church is a 4th-century church building near Jubail, Eastern Province, discovered in 1986.It originally belonged to the Church of the East, an ancient Nestorian branch of Eastern Christianity in the Middle East. The Dilmun encompassed the east large side of the Arabian Peninsula, particularly in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.