The problem is about how to reverse decades-long policies of promoting unbridled multiculturalism that allowed the ideologies of Islamism and Salafism to permeate an inchoate European Muslim society, thereby militating against the creation of an European Islam free from the ideological baggage exported by conservative and Islamist individuals, groups and governments.
The extent to which this problem has been difficult to gauge lies squarely in the haughty—yet self-loathing—contemporary thought of the West, which has prevented a civilized and honest critique of Islam’s inability to reform its perversions.
This provoked a national debate about balancing civil liberties and security.
The problem, however, goes beyond fending off terror acts or revising counterterrorism strategies.
Since the 1950s, Muslim minorities have emerged in Europe as a result of decolonization, labor migration, and conflict and civil strife in their home countries.
Many came seeking asylum from conflict, while others were simply pursuing a higher standard of living.
The study examines and quantifies the state policies in twenty Western European countries on both national and municipal levels with a particular focus on actual implementation.
Results indicate that Western European countries vary widely in terms of their accommodation of Islam.
The adaptation of Muslim religiosity in Europe has been addressed by various scholars as a shift from “Islam in Europe” to “European Islam.” Many have addressed the reinterpretation of Islam in accordance with the changing concerns and needs of young Muslims; the transformation of religious authority; and the secular, liberal democracy of European states.There are also notable within-country differences, due in part to regional governments, as they also make and/or implement policy decisions.Both between- and within-country variations in the accommodation of Islam reveal a variety of nuances, and blur dual categories, such as ethnic-civic and assimilationist-integrationist.Researchers, in turn, have shifted their focus from socioeconomic conditions and ethno-national culture to religion.Currently, groups and individuals with backgrounds in Muslim-majority countries are identified as Muslims, as if they were part of a unified religious community.Prices in € represent the retail prices valid in Germany (unless otherwise indicated). Prices do not include postage and handling if applicable. This study creates an index that reveals the extent to which Western European countries accommodate Islamic traditions and practices.The index covers six realms in which Muslim communities seek accommodation: (1) education, (2) chaplaincy services, (3) mosques, (4) cemeteries, (5) Islamic attire, and (6) halal food.In the 1970s, the establishment of communal life through family unification brought the institutionalization of cultural and religious practices, such as the establishment of mosques.Islam has become public in Europe, as an estimated 15 million immigrants originating from Muslim-majority countries have settled in European nations over this time period.*Prices in US$ apply to orders placed in the Americas only.Prices in GBP apply to orders placed in Great Britain only.